Studie-notas over "hoe zit het imperialistisch stadium van het kapitalisme ineen?"

Vanuit het volgende artikel op MO (“Duurzaam op papier - In de papierplantages van Bahia, Brazilië”, http://www.mo.be/index.php?id=348&tx_uwnews_pi2[art_id]=29495&cHash=7da216e2fb), waarin de practijken van een half-“Braziliaans” multinational inzake het handig ontduiken van de spelregels van “duurzaam” produceren worden aangeklaagd dacht ik eens te onderzoeken hoe het kapitalistisch eigenaarschap van produktiemiddelen concreet wat Veracel betreft ineenzit in het actuele stadium van het imperialisme… Zo kan men uiteindelijk de “schuldigen” lokaliseren die “aangepakt” moeten worden….als men ervan uitgaat dat “Veracel” (of haar eigenaars) nu “moeten betalen”.
Een beetje google-en gaf mij de volgende links:




Wat is het “eigenaarschap van productiemiddelen” in het imperialistisch stadium van het kapitalisme.
Hoewel in laatste instantie, individuele of gegroepeerde kapitalisten “eigenaar” zijn, weliswaar een relatief kleine groep in vergelijking met de werkende wereldbevolking is het NIET zo dat indivduele of gegroepeerde kapitalisten die “vroeger” eigenaar waren van fabrieken nu gewoon eigenaar zijn van kwantitatief grotere “fabrieken” –multinationals of monopolies. Nee “het kapitalistisch eigenaarschap van productiemiddelen”, wordt uitgeoefend langsheen een HELE produktieketen van grondstof tot eindprodukt (via logistiek, transport, raffinage,  bewerking en financiele operaties), in feite langsheen VERSCHILLENDE grondstoffen tot DIVERSE eindprodukten.
“Veracel Papierpulpbedrijf, joint venture van het Zweeds-Finse Stora Enso en het Braziliaanse Fibria. Veracel beheert 96.000 hectare eucalyptus, goed voor een jaarlijkse productie van een  miljoen ton cellulose (een bestanddeel van hout). De pulp, waarvan toiletpapier, doekjes en  glanzende tijdschriften worden gemaakt, is voor 98 procent bestemd voor export. De komst van Veracel werd aangekondigd als een project dat banen zou creëren en de regio zou ontwikkelen. Daarom kon het bedrijf rekenen op aantrekkelijke leningen van de Braziliaanse ontwikkelingsbank en de Europese investeringsbank, die samen ongeveer de helft van de totale 1,25 miljard dollar investeringen financierden. Vandaag stellen de 96.000 hectare eucalyptusplantages van Veracel 2600 mensen tewerk. Dat is ongeveer één baan per 37 hectare. De papajateelt waarvoor de regio vroeger bekend stond, creëerde een job per hectare. Voor koffieplantages geldt een verhouding van een job per drie hectare.”[1]
Veracel is een multinational bedrijf, een kapitalistisch bedrijf. Dus is het eigendom van kapitalisten? Awel het is “eigendom” van zowel het “Braziliaanse” Fibria en het “Zweeds”-“Finse” Stora Enso.
En Fribria?

En Stora Enso?

Stora Enso in brief 

Stora Enso is a global paper, packaging and wood products company producing newsprint and book paper, magazine paper, fine paper, consumer board, industrial packaging and wood products.
The Group has some 27 000 employees and 88 production facilities in more than 35 countries worldwide, and is a publicly traded company listed in Helsinki and Stockholm. Our customers include publishers, printing houses and paper merchants, as well as the packaging, joinery and construction industries.
Our annual production capacity is 12.7 million tonnes of paper and board, 1.5 billion square metres of corrugated packaging and 6.9 million cubic metres of sawn wood products, including 3.1 million cubic metres of value-added products. Our sales in 2009 were EUR 8.9 billion, with an operating profit excluding non-recurring items and fair valuations of EUR 320.5 million.
Stora Enso’s company mission is to use and develop its expertise in renewable materials to meet the needs of its customers and many of today’s global raw material challenges. Our products provide a climate-friendly alternative to many products made from competing non-renewable materials, and have a smaller carbon footprint. Our solutions based on wood therefore have wide-reaching benefits for us as a business, a people and a planet. Sustainability – meaning economic, social and environmental responsibility – underpins our thinking and our approach to every aspect of doing business.
Stora Enso will focus more on growth markets in China and Latin America, and fibre-based packaging, plantation-based pulp and selected paper grades. Fibre-based packaging offers steady long-term growth in most segments and has vast innovation opportunities, offering sustainable new solutions for our customers. Plantation-based pulp allows us to secure low-cost fibre for production. (http://www.storaenso.com/ )

Dus Stora Enso, monopolie in papier-produktie (mede-bezitter van Veracel) is dus ZELF een weer een multinational of monopolie.

En Stora dan?

Principal operating divisions of Stora
(a) Stora Forest supplies wood raw materials for Stora's Swedish forest products operations, and is
responsible for the management of Stora's forest holdings in Sweden;
(b) Stora Cell manufactures paper and pulp;
(c) Stora News manufactures newsprint and magazine paper;
(d) Billerud manufactures packaging paper, board, pulp and various packaging paper products;
(e) Papyrus manufactures fine papers and pulp;
(f) Stora Timber manufactures sawn timber;
(g) Tarkett is a flooring manufacturer whose product range includes resilient hardwood, textile, ceramic
flooring, wall facades and textile products for industrial applications;
(h) Stora Kitchen manufactures kitchen and bathroom equipment;
(i) Swedoor manufactures doors and windows;
(j) Åkerlund & Rausing manufactures packaging products and systems, primarily for the foodprocessing
(k) Stora Kemi manufactures sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chlorate, soda lye and CMC
(carboxymethyl cellulose) and is engaged in mining and sulphur-chemical operations. Stora is in the
process of divesting this division with the exception of the mining and sulphorous chemical
operations; and
(l) Stora Power produces electricity in wholly- and partly-owned hydropower plants and has ownership
interests in nuclear power and other thermal power facilities.

The world's oldest industrial corporation is still going strong. Where? In Sweden. In operation 73 years after King John signed the Magna Carta and more than 200 years before Columbus discovered America, Sweden's Stora Kopparberg Bergslags Aktiebolag has fueled Sweden's industrial growth over the centuries, and today is a modern diversified giant whose eye is on the future. Stora Kopparberg is Sweden's largest producer of electricity, one of the biggest manufacturers of pulpwood and newsprint (with exports to 40 nations), the largest supplier of dairy and agricultural produce, the biggest steelmaker and a major producer of industrial chemicals. As if that were not enough, Stora Kopparberg also manufactures the red paint that covers cottages throughout the picturesque Swedish countryside.
Hell & Glory. Like its name, the company's history is linked to Stora Kopparberg—a great subterranean copper "mountain" of unusually pure copper ore located among the gloomy forests of central Sweden. Toward the end of the Dark Ages, when copper was needed to arm Europe's growing armies, hundreds of men migrated to the copper mountain. At the pithead sprang up the village of Falun, Sweden's first industrial center, where the company still has its headquarters. At first each miner dug and smelted the ore himself, but by 1347 King Magnus Eriksson had granted a charter setting up a corporation of master miners. The largest copper supplier in medieval Europe, Kopparberg made Sweden a major political power; its profits financed King Gustavus Adolphus' part in the Thirty Years War (1618-48), which established Swedish hegemony over Europe for nearly a century. When Queen Christina visited the mine in 1646, she said: "The greatness of the realm stands and falls with the copper mountain."
For all the glory that the Kopparberg brought Sweden, mining conditions were appalling. Sulphurous smoke blacked the huts of Falun and killed off all plant life for miles around. The workers' plight in the dark and sooty mines was so bad that a visitor in the 1700s wrote that "no theologian has ever been able to describe hell so frightfully." In the early 19th century, as iron began replacing copper in importance, Stora Kopparberg turned away from the riches of the copper mountain and began the diversification that has kept it alive and thriving.
Lean at the Top. Under Managing Director Hakan Abenius, 60, a grave and quiet Swede who took over in 1948, the company is steadily branching out, has three plants abroad, and is now part of a consortium developing molybdenum deposits in Greenland. Last year Stora's sales were about $153 million, are expected to rise slightly this year. Despite its advanced age, Stora has avoided hardening of the arteries by keeping its upper echelon lean (only 16% of its staff are salaried white-collar workers v. 25% for the average Swedish firm) and its plants remarkably efficient.
Stora has built so many specialized machines and invented so many processes that it derives a substantial income from 120 licensing agreements with foreign countries. Its most notable recent achievement was the development of the Kaldo steelmaking process, which rivals Austria's famous LD process for making high-grade steel more quickly and efficiently.
No one knows exactly how old Stora is. The first documented reference to it dates from 1288, but archaeologists think that mining was going on long before that. Teams of Stora experts are employing spectroanalysis to determine the age of ancient copper objects that have been found in the old mine shafts. They may go back 1,000 years.( http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,870230,00.html )

Zo is Stora dus weer een “groepering” van monopolies in verschillende produktie-sectoren, ondermeer die van winning van allerlei metaal-ertsen.
Zo wordt het imperialistisch “bezit” van grondstoffenwinning (waaronder dus grondstof voor papier) uitgeoefend: een hele reeks grondstoffenwinningen in handen van uiteindelijk een kleine groep kapitalisten. En blijkbaar ligt de oorspronkelijke accumulatie van kapitaal, vergroot door jarenlange, nee eeuwenlange toe-eigening van meerwaarde uit de uitbuiting van generaties arbeidskrachten in een ver feodaal verleden.

En Enso dan?
(tot hier was ik geraakt)

[1] “Duurzaam op papier - In de papierplantages van Bahia, Brazilië”, http://www.mo.be/index.php?id=348&tx_uwnews_pi2[art_id]=29495&cHash=7da216e2fb

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